Moreau-Vauthier attended the École des beaux-arts in 1850 and worked in the sculptor Armand Toussaint’s studio. He began at the Salon in 1857. He specialised in allegorical and mythological figures. He also made decorations for the Saint-Bernard de la Chapelle church, Saint-Joseph church, the Tuileries palace and the Town Hall in Paris. He produced three sculptures for the World Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893.
He was also fond of precious materials, gold, silver, stones and enamel, which he frequently used in his figures and portraits such as the 1875, L’Amour, statuette in ivory, marble, gold, silver and precious stones and also in 1881, La Fortune statuette in ivory, enamel, onyx and silver (Rothschild Collection).
He was the father of the writer and painter Charles Moreau-Vauthier and the sculptor Paul Moreau-Vauthier.